Message No : 2Sr.No : 104/724
Question By : MMERC

Assalamu Alaikum
Dear Mufti Saheb

Please explain for us the very important aspetcs of Ramadhanul Mubarak. I mean how we Muslims should observe the Fasting, what are the things which are harmful for Fast and what is better in the month of Ramadhan.?
Wassalam

 

Reply By : Maulana Mutiur Rahman Al-Qasmi
Designation : ODI, MMERC, Mumbai 

Sawm or Keeping Fast in the month of Ramadhan

Sawm (Fasting): Sawm, fasting, or Roza in Islam means to refrain from eating, drinking and sex from Subhe Sadiq (pre-dawn) to Ghroobe Shams (sunset) with the intention of observing the Fast.

Niyyah (intention): Niyyah means inclination of the heart. It is not necessary to articulate by tongue yet desirable to state by tongue. Moreover, It is not necessary to express the intention in Arabic alone; one may express his or her intention in any language, which he/she knows or likes. However it is preferable to say in Arabic

How to make Niyyah: The intention of the Fast for Ramadhan should be made with following words during the night.¨¨??? ?? ??¨ª¨º ?? ??? ?????
¡°I intent to observe tomorrow a fast of the month of Ramadhan.¡±
If the intention is to be made at the dawn or latter in the daytime then it is to be in the following words:
¡°Today I have intention of observing a Fast of the month of Ramadhan¡±.

Necessity of Niyyah for Fasting: Niyyah is necessary for Fasting in the month of Ramadhan. The fast of Ramadhan will not be valid without Niyyah. The Niyyah may be made during the previous night or before noon of the same day for the fast of Ramadhan, and Nazre-Muayyan (specifically vowed fast). To make Niyyah means simply to form an intention that ¡®today I am fasting¡¯ or ¡®tomorrow I will be fasting¡¯.

The Fast of Ramadhan is obligatory with the following conditions

1. One should be a Muslim.
2. One must be Baligh (Islamically grown up/ adult), it is not obligatory for minors.
3. One must be acquainted with the fact that Fasting is obligatory during Ramadhan; hence, if a Muslim is a citizen of a Darul-harb (other religious country) and is not acquainted with obligation of Fasting during Ramadhan then keeping the Fast is not obligatory upon him.
4. One must be free from Azar-e Shariyah, (the Islamically valid reasons) for not observing the fast.

Islamically valid reasons for not observing the Fast

1. Being on journey
2. Sickness
3. Pregnancy
4. Breast feeding
5. Intensity of hunger and thirst
6. Weakness and old age
7. Risk of life
8. Jihad
9. Un-consciousness
10. Insanity

Explanation of above reasons

The Shariah in all its injunctions has shown due regard for the convenience of the people and has never subjected them to unnecessary hardship. The Qura¡¯n itself has permitted Muslim not to fast when they are sick or on journey:

¡°Therefore whosoever amongst you finds the month of Ramadhan, must observe fasting on its days, but if any one of you is sick or on journey (shall fast) the same number on other days¡± 2/185

1. The traveller is allowed not to observe the fast even if he is performing a journey of any kinds and all the facilities are available. However if he is not likely to face any hardship during the journey, he is encouraged to observe the Fast to receive blessing of Ramadhan.

2. If on account of Fasting there is a risk of catching a disease or there is a chance of worsening of the disease, or there would be delayed in recovery, one is allowed to delay the fast in the days out of Ramdhan with the condition that an experienced, righteous and competent Muslim physician advises, or on the basis of his own previous experience he may do so.

3. If a pregnant woman is certain or almost certain that if she fasts the foetus will be harmed or she herself will suffer danger, she is permitted not to observe the Fast in the month of Ramadhan. Notably, If a woman remembers after having had the intention of the Fast that she is pregnant and she is almost certain that fasting would be harmful for her or her foetus she is permitted to break her Fast and observe it on other day after the month of Ramadhan without expiation (Fidya)

4. If a suckling mother has a strong feeling that fasting would be harmful to her baby or it would harm herself she is permitted to delay the Fast.

5. If a person is overwhelmed by hunger and thirst and fears the risk of life or mental derangement then he can delay the Fasting.

6. If a person is convalescing after illness and is weak and Fasting is likely to render him sick again he is allowed to defer the Fasting. Similarly a person is extremely weak due to old age is allowed to delay the Fasting.

7. If a person runs the risk of death if he Fasts or he is under the control of a cruel master who threatens him of death or severe torture if he Fasts he is allowed to delay his Fasting.

8. If Jihad is in progress the participants are allowed to postpone the fasting. Moreover, if a person has the intention to participate in Jihad against enemies of Islam, and thinks that the Fasting will cause weakness, he is permitted to defer Fasting in the month of Ramadhan.

9. If a person becomes unconscious and remains in that state for a number of days then the number of fasting days passed unconsciously will have to be made up later by Fasting on other days.

10. If a person has a fit of Insanity and he cannot fast then he has one of the two alternatives. (1) If he remains constantly under the fit and does not regain sense at all, he will wholly stand exempted, he will neither have to fast the same number of the days later nor make any expiation. (2) If he recovers from fit occasionally he will have to fast the same number of the days latter or he has to make expiation.

Things that Break the Fast and make both Qaza and Kaffarah compulsory

According to Imam Abu Hanifah, by the following reasons one is instructed to make the Qaza and Kaffarah for his mistake in the month of Ramadhan with below-mentioned conditions.

(1) To eat an eatable.
(2) To have a common drink or smoke.
(3) To eat raw or dry meat whether Halal or Haram.
(4) To eat wheat or any food flour.
(5) To chew wheat and the wheat or its taste reaches to throat.
(6) To eat any grain in size of wheat.
(7) To eat a stone, which is used as medicine or a simple stone for one who is habitual of eating stones.
(8) To taste salt except few cases.
(9) To swallow saliva of one¡¯s spouse or beloved with love and affection.
(10) To have sex with or without ejaculation.

Conditions for Kaffarah to be compulsory

1. The fast must be of Ramadhan.
2. The fasting person must make the intention of the Fast for next day during night.
3. Person has to be one on whom fasting in the month of Ramadhan is obligatory.
4. The person has to break the Fast willingly.

Note:
1. The Kaffarah will be nullified if some one experiences the following conditions in the same day when the fast was broken and Kaffarah was due compulsory.
a. Haidh (menstruation) begins for a woman.
b. Nifas (bleeding after child birth) occurs to a woman.
c. He or she meets with such valid reasons that should have made Iftar (breaking the fast) permissible.

2. If a person on journey in the month of Ramadhan keeps Fast of Qaza instead of Ramadhan and he breaks the Fast then Kaffarah does not become compulsory.

3. If some one does not make the intention of Fast and goes without fasting in the month of Ramadhan then only Qaza will be compulsory not Kaffarah.

4. If Kaffarah becomes necessary once or more by committing any of the above-mentioned mistakes and in one year or in different years then one Kaffarah will suffice for all but when once Kaffarah paid for mistakes and one again commits such act than he or she should pay the Kaffarah again.

Ways to Pay Kaffarah

Kaffarah for fasting is the penalty, which Shariah imposes upon a believer for flagrant violation of the sanctity of fasting during the month of Ramadhan.
Kaffarah can be made in the following ways:
1. By setting free one slave Muslim or none Muslim.
2. Or by keeping fast for tow months continuously (without leaving any gape).
3. If one does not have the strength to free a slave or keep on fasting for two months then he should feed two meals to 60 Miskin (very poor and hungry people) or he should feed one Miskin for 60 days two meals each day with the condition that the poor person must be the same for both the meals otherwise the Kaffarah will not be done. Moreover, one is allowed to give price or grain of the two meals to 60 people in one day or to a single person in 60 days.

Things that Break the Fast and make Qaza compulsory not Kaffarah

(1) To eat the followings:
Raw rice, kneaded flour, salt, any stone which is not eaten or used for medicine, cotton, wool, paper, any fruit which is generally not eaten, raw nuts, pebbles, iron, sand, copper, gold, silver etc.
(2) Apply medicine via the anus.
(3) Apply medicine in nose.
(4) Drop oil, water or medicine in the ear.
(5) Apply medicine in the stomach or brain wound, which reaches the brain or stomach.
(6) Entry of the drops of rain into the throat.
(7) While gargling water goes down into throat.
(8) When forced to break the fast by eating or having sex.
(9) Eat after eating forgetfully
(10) Having sex after doing it forgetfully.
(11) Made Iftar (broke the Fast) or had sex doubting that the sun had set, whereas it had not.
(12) Eat Sehri (pre-dawn Tiffin) or had sex doubting that it is night, and in reality it was over.
(13) Ejaculation after Stimulation of sexual areas.
(14) Breaking any fast other than Ramadhan Fasting.
(15) Made Sex with force (Qaza due on forced only and both Qaza and Kaffarah on the other partner.
(16) To drop the medicine in private part of female.
(17) To enter wet finger into private holes.
(18) Voluntarily vomiting (e.g. put one¡¯s finger into throat) if it is mouthful.
(19) One knows that one is fasting; he swallows his own vomit, which is mouthful.
(20) To eat something which was stuck between the teeth and it was of the size of a grain (horse gram).
(21) The blood flowed from the gums and teeth into the throat.
(22) Masturbation.
(23) When a person ate (thinking that his fast is already broken) with a wet dream.
(24) When a person inhales smoke into mouth.
(25) When a person broke the fast then fell sick.
(26) When a woman intentionally broke the fast then her monthly period started or Nifas began.
(27) When a person made no intention of the Fast and ate.
(28) When one broke the fast due to labour pains or delivery (child birth).
(29) Ejaculation takes place due to kissing or embracing a female or just sitting near a woman.
(30) A person who was in coma (unconscious state) for the whole of Ramadhan.

Things that do not break the Fast

1. Eating forgetfully.
2. Drinking forgetfully.
3. Having sex forgetfully.
4. Ejaculation caused by seeing anything erratic.
5. Ejaculation caused by thinking.
6. To apply oil anywhere externally.
7. To apply Surma, even if its taste felt in throat.
8. Pulling out blood from body.
9. Backbiting. (but extremely forbidden during Fast and out side it)
10. Making intention of Iftar (to break the fast) without actually breaking it.
11. Entry of smoke into the throat unwillingly.
12. Entry of fly or mosquito into throat.
13. Entry of dust into throat.
14. Tasting the effect or smell of smoke.
15. To wake up in the state of Janabah (after wet dream which requires bath) and spend the whole day in this situation, although to remain in this condition for whole day is prohibited.
16. If a man put the medicine or oil through his private part, (if a women does so her fast will go off and she has to make Qaza)
17. Water enters the ear while one is in pool or river.
18. To use repeatedly the same twig to clean one¡¯s ear.
19. To forcefully hold back a sneeze or swallow mucus, (it is better to remove the mucus)
20. Unwilling vomiting that came; but went back inside even if it be a mouthful.
21. Intentional vomiting less than mouthful even if it went back inside.
22. To eat something which is less than a grain in size and was stuck in between the teeth.
23. To eat something, from out side, as such the person picks something up and puts it into the mouth but so small that its taste doesn¡¯t reach the throat or is not felt by the throat.
24. To use toothpaste or tooth powder, etc.
25. Bleeding from nose even if the saliva is slightly affected but if the blood flows down the throat then the fast will break.
26. To have bath any amount of the time while fasting.
27. To receive vaccine, inoculation, and injection while fasting except those which are used for food or energy making purpose.
28. To put medicine in eyes while fasting.
29. Breast-feeding
30. To apply medicine externally on private parts provided it does not reach the area from where absorption takes place into the stomach.
31. If on awaking one finds blood on the teeth and does not know whether it went into the stomach or not.
32. Pyorrhea (a disease of the gums).

Common Mustahab (Desirable) deeds for Fasting

1. To partake Sehri (Predawn Tiffin).
2. To eat Sehri during its last time.
3. Not to delay in Iftar (breaking the Fast) after sunset.
4. To make Iftar with dates.
5. Not to look at one¡¯s wife or husband with sexual desire.

Few of Makrooh (undesirable) things while fasting

1. To taste something unnecessarily.
2. To chew any type of things but the taste does not reach the throat.
3. Kissing some one without control.
4. Embracing one¡¯s wife or husband with a manner, which may result ejaculation.
5. To collect saliva in mouth and then swallow it.
6. To do any thing that makes one weak e.g. cupping, removal of blood or open vein.
7. To use toothpaste or toothpowder.

A few things which are not Makrooh while fasting

1. To apply oil on the body.
2. To apply Surma.
3. Cupping or removal of blood or opening a vein without resulting weakness.
4. To do teeth by dry or green Miswak.
5. To take bath to cool oneself.

Traweeh

1. Traweeh (20 Rakat Prayer after Aisha) is Sunnah in every night of Ramadhan according to all four Imams of Ahle Sunnah Wal Jamah.
2. It is also Sunnah to read or listen to the entire Glorious Qura¡¯n in Traweeh Salah.
3. If someonee completes the whole Qura¡¯n within few days he should not leave the Traweeh of the remaining nights of Ramadhan.
4. If someone could not keep fast due to any reason he should not leave Traweeh thinking that Traweeh depends upon Fasting.
5. To shave beard is Haram in Shariah, and the committer is a Fasiq therefore, the Imamat (prayer leading) by a Fasiq Hafiz is Makrooh-e tahreemi.
6. To give a Hafiz travelling expenses and his well-maintained accommodation etc. are encouraged virtuous deeds if he is a non-residential person.
7. If a Hafiz was not intending to receive anything for his reciting the Glorious Qura¡¯n in Tarweeh prayer and someone gives him something, it is permissible for him to take. But if the custom of area is to bestow gifts to a Hafiz for his recitation and the Hafiz recites the Qura¡¯n with this notion even if he does not verbally expresses his intention then it will not be valid to give or take anything for that recitation.
8. It is the unanimous decision of Imam Abu Haneefa, Imam Shaf¡¯ee and some of the Malikie scholars that performing Traweeh Salah in the mosque is a Sunnah and if most of the members of a locality perform Traweeh Salah in the mosque and some people offer it at their homes then Sunnah will be performed.

Miscellaneous

If a person breaks his fast or his fast is broken then for the rest of the day he should pause himself like of a fasting person. The same rule is to be followed by a woman who became cleaned from monthly period or Nifas. Similarly, the case with a child who became Baligh (mature) or non-Muslim who became Muslim after predawn.

If a person is seen eating or drinking, who forgot that it is the month of Ramadhan and he is on fast, then the one who is seeing should remind him about his being on fasting state and not to remind is Makrooh (disliked). That is in the state that the person is considered to be able or has strength to continue the Fast and if he has apparently no strength to continue or it would be very hard for him to continue the fast then it is

To view complete list of questions posted on the topic Click Here

To post your Question Click Here.




Eastern Cresent

http://www.markazulmaarif.org/img/ec/2012/October/ecOctober_cover2012_200.JPG
Current Issue October 2012
Click here to join markazulmaarif E-Groups on Yahoo!