Message No : 1Sr.No : 66/724
Question By : Abdul Rouf

The Respected Brothers in Islam
Markazul Maarif,
Mumbai - 400 003

Dear Brothers,

Please give me the answers of the following questions. I will be very benefited from this answers and You will be receiving the Duwa forever from my part.

Q.1. What is Ramdan? (Please specify meaning & introduction)
Q.2. Why is Ramdan Celebrated?
Q.3. Why is Fitra given in the month of Ramdan, and at what
Per cent?
Q.4. What is the role of the moon in the month of Ramdan?
Q.5. Why the EID is celebrated in the name of Eidul-Fitar?
Q.6. What are the Niyat's for Sehari & Iftar?
Q.7. Why do people keep Fasting (Roja)?

Duwa and Salam
Abdul Rouf


Reply By : Md.Obaidullah Mohiuddin Al-Qasmi
Designation : Mufti: ODI, MMERC, Mumbai 

Dear brother in Islam
Wa'laikumus Salam

Answers to your questions are given below respectively.

Answer to Q:1 'What is Ramdan?'

Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: O those who believe, the fasts have been enjoined upon you as were enjoined upon those before you so that you be God-fearing. (Chapter:2 Verse:183)
Literally, Sawm means 'to abstain'. In the terminology of Islamic Law, Sawm means 'to abstain from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse; with the conditions that one abstains continuously from dawn to sunset, and that there is an intention to fast'. Therefore, should one eat or drink anything even a minute before sunset, the fast will not be valid. Similarly, if one abstained from all these things throughout the day but made no intention to fast, there will be no fast here too.
Sawm or 'fasting' is an ibadah,an act of worship in Islam, regarded as its pillar and sign.The merits of fasting are too numerous to be taken up at this point.
(Ma'ariful Qur'an English version V.1 P.453)
Fasting is one of the five fundamental articles upon which Islam stands. It is a universal institution which all the religions of the world and all the great religious personalities adopted as the principal method of controlling and killing passions.
(Mishkatul Masabih English version V.3 P.508)

Answer to Q:2 Why Ramadhan is observed?
Fasts in the month of Ramadhan is observed because it has been enjoined upon Believers by Allah Almighty. We are His servants, so we have to follow whatever He commands us to do. But like His all commandments, the commandment of Fasting is also not made without any benefit for human beings. Rather it has a lot of advantages and benefits in it. A few of them are given below:

1) Fasting brings passion under control Passion is the root of all evils, and this can be regulated by the method of fasting. In case of excessive food and drink, it rises its head and commits tremendous havoc in the spiritual world. Allah Almighty created man and his passion. He knows the best medicine for passions and therefore He has prescribed fasting.
2) It makes the soul shining: Fasting invigorates the soul and enlivens it from its lethargic state, while excessive eating makes it blind and dark just as excessive water destroys crops. Excessive eating makes a man dull and stupid and deprives a man from the power of thinking.
3) Fasting removes false sense of prestige: It removes pride because a hungry man finds himself weak and naturally turns towards One who is strong.
4) It greatly contributes to the preservation of health: Health improves a great deal by fasting. The great American physician Dr. Dewey said: Take the food away from a sick man's stomach, and then you have begun to starve not the sick man but the disease. The digestive organs are given some rest to work with redoubled energy and vigour just as a land which was left without cultivation for one year brings abundant crops in the year following, or just a man can work with redoubled vigour after some rest. Spiritual progress depends on healthy mind which again depends on healthy body. Therefore the value of fasting for preservation of health is very great.
5) Fasting teaches democracy: It teaches democracy which is not even witnessed in prayer. A king may pray with a beggar in the mosque but at home he may lead quite a different life by taking foods at pleasure and by having sexual relations with women. Fasting, however, places all men, rich and poor, on the same pitiful plight of hunger and does not allow anybody to take food and drink or to have sexual relation in day- time.
6) Fasting teaches sympathy for the hungry: Fasting is the only thing which gives a sense of pangs of a hungry man in the mind of the rich. Thus this sense enkindles a spirit of kindness to the poor and the distressed. It also gives rise to the thought how the people will fare on the Resurrection Day when they will feel the greatest urge of hunger and thirst.

Answer to Q 3:
Why Fitra is given in the month of Ramadhan, and at what Per cent?

The true object of Sadaqah Fitr is to help the poor and the needy; so that they may join the festival of I'd with the rich in equal spirit.
Sadaqah Fitr or Fitra means alms bestowed upon the poor on the occasion of I'd festival after the month of Ramadhan. It has been made incumbent by Allah Almighty upon every Muslim possessing property to the amount of a Nisab clear of incumbrance.
The measure of I'd charity (Sadaqah Fitr) in wheat, flour, barn and dried fruits is half Sa'a(=1.575 Gms. per head); and in dates barely one Sa'a (perhead). (Bukhari & Muslim)
Present market price of such measure of wheat can also be paid.
(Mishkatul Masabih English version v.2 p.57)

Answer to Q:4 What is the role of the moon in the month of Ramdan?
Allah says: They ask you about new moons. Say: They are indicative of time for the people, and of the Hajj (Ch.2 v:189)This verse tells us no more than that the

moon will help identify the count of months and days on which rest transactions and acts of worship, such as, the Hajj.
Words used by the Holy Qur'an with regard to the moon very clearly indicate that the lunar calendar is a fixed choice in the Shariah of Islam, specially in the prescribed acts of worship which relate to a particular month and its dates; for instance the month of Ramadhan and Hajj, as well as injunctions related to the days of Hajj, Muharram and Lailatul-Qadr are all tied to the sighting of the new moon. It has been established that the lunar calendar is the one to be trusted upon in the sight of Allah, although, the count of months can come out of a solar calendar as well.
The Shariah of Islam has opted for the lunar calendar because it is based on something which every sighted person can see on the horizon and be informed accordingly; the knowledge of it is equally easy for the scholars, the ignorant, the villagers, the islanders and the dwellers of the mountains.

Answer to Q:5
Q.5. Why is the EID celebrated in the name of Eidul-Fitr?

Eidul-Fitr means 'happiness of breaking the fasts'. The day of breaking the fasts is the day of the 1st Shawwal. So I'd has been named as I'dul Fitr because this day comes as the day of happiness on completing one month fasts successfully.

Answer to Q:6
Q.6. What are the Niyyats for Sehari & Iftar?
Niyyat is the name of intention only. To utter the words of Niyyat is better and Mustahab. No need of intention in Iftar at all. However, there are Dua's at the time of Iftar and Sehri mentioned in Hadith. These Dua's can be got in Ramadhan time table found everywhere.

Answer to Q:7
Q.7. Why do people keep Fasting (Roja)?

Answer to this question can be found in answer to Q:2.

Thanking You

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