Message No : 9Sr.No : 14/724
Question By : Markazul Ma'arif

Whether Sufism is a part of Islam or its an innovation? Kindly provide logical references from Qura'an and Hadith.

(Question is self made from various queries sent to us by members of our e-group)


Reply By : Mohd. Obaidullah Qasmi
Designation : Mufti, MMERC, Mumbai 

Concept of Tasawwf in the light of Islamic Sharia
References for those who like to prove by themselves:
1) Isbaate Karaamat az Awlia'Allah baad Mamaat (Imdad v:4 p:462) 2) Isbaate akhze Subha (Imdad v:4 p:490) 3) difference between Taqleed & It-tebaa (Imdad v:4 p:606) 4) Wojoobe Taqleed (Imdad v:4 p:564) 5) Farq dar Taqleed wa Bai'ate Shakhsee (Imdad v:4 p:564) 6) Daf'e Shubuhaat az Mas'ala'e Kafaa'at are only Quran and Hadees sources of Shari'ah? (Imdad v:2 p:564) 7) Kitabus Sulook (v: 5 p:183) 8) Risalatut Ta'arruf fi Tahqeeqit Tasarruf (v: 5 p:227) 9) Risalatu saddil Hai'ah fi Haddil Bai'ah (v: 5 p:237) 10) Nailul Fazeelah bi-Sowalil Waseelah (Ahsanul Fatawa v:1 p: 331) 11) Kitabus Sulook (Ahsanul Fatawa v:1 p: 542) Shri'at, Tareeqat, Haqeeqat, Ma'rafat P:549 12) Shari'at wa Tariqat mein Farq (Fatawa Mahmoodiah v:1 p: 142) 13) Fitna-e Inkare Hadith Ahsanul Fatawa vol:1 For Hadith p:116-121 No:7,10, 13,21,38, P:122-127 No:3, 6, 16, 18,19 P: 127 No:3 P: 142 No: 2, 4, 6, 9, P: 144 P: 145 No:1,4 P:148 No:1, For Ijma p:126 For four sources p: 131 Rahimiah P:182-185 P: 155, Kuch deir Ghair Muqallideen ke saath P:51 Ma'ariful Qur'an, Comments on the nature of Taqleed Ch: 2 v:170
Brother Arfi Shah wrote: '' Dear brother MB Qasmi,... The logic is very simple to understand if we analyse it in the light of quran and hadees. I really do not understand why our brothers hesitate to discuss the topic with the help of glorious quran or hadees. ...Zafar has come out with a very concrete mail and proved that Sufism is not a part of Islam, people will appreciate and get convinced if you provide more number of verses and Hadees than Mr. Zafar to prove that Sufism is a part of Islam....I would welcome your reply on the same topic in the light of quran and hadees''
These above-mentioned sentences in your long write up prove your view point and it seems that you claim that proof of any sharia deed can be made only by the Qur'an and Hadith as you asked to prove Tasawwuf in the light of Qur'an and Hadith at several places in your write up. Your misconception and misunderstanding about Tasawwuf are the direct result of this view. And, this notion may create thousands of grave misconceptions about many Islamically proved articles. Before proving Tasawwuf in the light of Islam, it becomes necessary to analyze Islamic sources on which all the Islamic rulings are based.
How many sources does Islamic Shari'ah have?
According to Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jama'ah (followers of Sunnah and Prophet's Companions) Islamic Shari'ah has four sources- (1) the Glorious Qura'an (2) Hadith (3) Ijma (consensus of Deen knowing people) (4) Qiyas (analogy on the basise of above mentioned three). Any thing proved by any of these four will be considered proved Islamically.
(1) The Qur'an: The Glorious Qur'an is the first source and fountain-head of all the sources. To believe in each and every word of the Qura'n is Farz (incumbent) and part of Faith. To deny any thing clearly mentioned in the Qura'n and understood under codified rules of exegetes is Kufr (denying the truth, punishable) undoubtedly.
(2) Hadith (words or deeds of Prophet or his silence over any happening before him) is the second source of Islam. Since the Qur'an is a very concise book which needs it explanation as it is on the peak of rhetoric. Therefore, Allah Almighty sent Prophet (swas) with the Qur'an solely for the purpose that he should explain to people, openly and explicitly, the correct meanings of the noble Qur'an. Allah Almighty said in the Qur'an:
''O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among youˇ­...'' (ch:4, v:59)
''He who obeys the Apostle, obeys Allahˇ­.'' (ch:480)
'' And We have sent down unto thee (also) the Message; that you mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought.'' (ch:16 v:44)
Abu Hurairah (R.A) reported that the Messenger of Allaht said ''Every one of my followers will enter Paradise except he who refused. He was questioned - And who has refused (truth) ? He said: Whoever obeys me shall enter Paradise and whoever disobeys me has refused'' (Bukhari ref:Alhadis v:1 p:159)
Abu Rafe'' reported that the messenger of Allah said: Never do I (wish to) see any of you reclining on his couch, and (whenever) an injunction out of my instructions concerning that which I have enjoined him or prohibited him comes to him, he says : I don't know. What we shall find in the book of Allah we shall follow. (Ahmad, Ibn Maja, Tirmizi, Abu Daud Ref: Alhadis v:1 p:164)
The prophet (swas) discharged this duty with grace and excellence both by his words and deeds. In fact, his whole life is the practical Tafseer of the Qur'an. It is for this reason that respected commentators, in order to understand the Qur'an, have laid the greatest emphasis on Hadith as the second source.
In brief, Hadith is the explanation of the meanings of the Qur'an. Without the help of Hadith many Ahkaam can't be understood and practiced.
For example, number of Farz prayers, number of Raka'ts, Farz and Wajib acts and other necessary details are not found in the Qur'an. Similarly, even necessary details of Zakat, Saum (Fasting) Haj, transactions etc. are not found in the Qur'an. They have been explained by the Prophet only.
(3) Ijma (consensus of Learned Ummah): It is the agreement of the answer, about a new case which answer is neither found in the Qur'an nor in Hadith, done by majority of the topmost Allah-fearing scholars of Islam having in-depth knowledge in the sciences of the Qur'an and Hadith in any period. They ponder over the newly-born case which is not found in the Qur'an and Hadith and then reach a common conclusion in the light of the Qur'an and Hadith.
Ijma is the third source of Islam. It is also obligatory to follow. Few of Qur'anic verses and Ahadith are given below which show authenticity and significance of Ijma:
Allah says '' And one whoso opposes the Messenger after the straight path became clear to him and follows a way against all Muslims, We shall transfer him to that very side he has chosen and shall through him into the Hell; and he reached a very bad place'' (ch:4 v:115)
Note: the scholars have derived from this verse that one who opposes Ijma-e-Ummat (consensus of Ummat) and denies it, is the Dweller of the Hell----in other words it is obligatory to accept and follow Ijma-e-Ummat.The Prophet (saws) has said that ''Allah's hand is on the Ummat of Muslims; he who adopted a separate way fell into the Hell''. (Tafseere-E-Usmani by Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani English version vol:1 p:389)
This verse and saying the Prophet (saws) show that Ijma-e-Ummat is Hujjat, i.e. to act upon what is agreed upon by Ummah is necessary (Wajib) and to oppose it is a grave sin.
Imam Shafe'ee quoted the above mentioned very verse in authenticity of Ijma when he was asked to bring a Qur'anic proof in its support, his answer was accepted by all as strong enough to prove Ijma as a source of Shari'ah. (Ma'ariful Qur'an vol:2 p:547)
Allah says ''And in the same way We made you a moderate Ummah (community), so that you should be witnesses over the people, and the Messenger a witness to you.'' (ch:2 v:143)
According to al-Qurtubi, this verse establishes Ijma, or the consensus of the Islamic Ummah, as one of the four deciding agencies in the matter of legislation. For, the very fact that Allah Himself has accepted this Ummah a trustworthy witness as against the other traditional communities, shows that the consensus of this Ummah is a deciding factor in legislative matters, and that it is necessary (Wajib) to act upon it. Thus, the consensus of the blessed Companions has to be accepted by their successors, and that of the latter by the next generation.
According to Al-Tafsir al-Mazhari, this verse establishes the principle that the deeds and acts of this Ummah which have been approved by a consensus are commendable, for, if one were to admit the possibility of a consensus on an error, the Ummah can not be characterized as being moderate and just. (Maariful Qur'an, English version vol:1 p:374)
The Prophet (SWAS) said: whoso secedes himself from the united body even to a hand's span and then dies, he dies a death of the Days of ignorance. (Bukhari & Muslim Ref: Al-Hadis v:1 p: 306)
Ibn Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Allah will not gather together my followers (or he said : the followers of Muhammad) over misguidance, and the hand of Allah is upon the united body; and whoso becomes separate, will be separated in Hell. (Tirmizi Ref: Al-Hadis v:1, p:307)
(4) Qiyas: It is analogical deduction from the above three sources of Shari'ah----the Qur'an, Hadith and Ijma. It is the fourth source of Shari'ah and recognized by the Qur'an, Hadith and Ijma. It is exercised by jurists only when the answer of a newly-born case is not found in the above three sources. They ponder over the new case to find out its answer in the light of the Qur'an, Hadith and Ijma. They try to find out the base and reason (Illat) of a ruling described in the text of the Qur'an , Hadith and Ijma and after they get the reason and base of that ruling, extend the same ruling to that newly-born case if the same reason is found in that new case. When the reason is mentioned in a textual ruling clearly and the same reason is found in the newly-born case, they unanimously declare the same ruling in this new case. For example, in the ruling of prohibition of wine the reason (illat) is clearly mentioned as intoxication (Nashah) which is a root cause of many crimes and sins. After the prophet's death many new drinks appeared which had intoxication such as Nabeez etc. Jurists declared the same ruling in Nabeez etc on the basis of the same reason of intoxication.
Qiyas is recognized as a source of Shari'ah by the Qur'an, Hadith and Ijma and logic too.
Proof of Qiyas from the Qur'an Allah says ''O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the messenger and men of authority from amongst you; then if you quarrel in aught refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you indeed believe in Allah and the last Day. That is the best and the fairest interpretation.'' (ch:4 p:59)
Abdullah khallaf argues from this verse on the authenticity of all the four sources. He says : Injunction to obedience of Allah and of the Messenger is the obedience of the Qur'an and Sunnah; injunction to obedience of men of authority from amongst you is to follow the rulings that have been agreed by jurists because they are the men of authority among Muslims. And, obedience of referring to Allah and Messenger in the newly-born controversial cases is the obedience to follow Qiyas where no text and Ijma are found, because in Qiyas the newly-born controversial matters are referred to Allah and Messenger as it is to pass a particular textual ruling of a case in a newly-born controversial case on the basis of the similarity between the two cases in the reason. Thus this verse shows to follow these four sources.'' (Usoolul Fiqh p:21 ref: Fiqhe Islami,usool,khidmaat awr taqaazey by Rizwanul-Qasmi p:255)
Proof of Qiyas from Haidth Mu'az bin Jabal reported that when the prophet of Allah sent him to Yemen, he asked: How will you decide when a matter comes to you for decision? He replied : I shall decide according to the Book of Allah. He enquired: If you do not find it in the Book of Allah ? He replied :Then according to Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah. He enquired : If you do not find it in the Sunnah of the Prophet of Allah? He said: I shall exert hard according to my opinion and spare pains. He narrated that the Prophet hit his chest and said: All praise is for Allah who supplied the messenger of the Messenger of Allah with what the Messenger of Allah is pleased with.'' (Tirmizi, Abu Daud Ref: Alhadis p: 172)
Proof of Qiyas from Ijma-e-Ummat All the Companions of the Prophet unanimously accept Qiyas and none has denied it. Exercise of Qiyas is reported by many Companions in many cases. We mention a few of them below:
1. Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas exercised Qiyas about the matter of Khawarij and argued against them.
2. Hazrat Ali exercised Qiyas when he was blamed to be responsible in killing of Hazrat Ammar by Hazrat Mu'awiyah.
Hazrat Ali exercised Qiyas and fixed the punishment of false accusation of unchastity (i.e.forty lashes) for drinking wine.
(Usoolul Fiqh p:21 ref: Fiqhe Islami,usool,khidmaat awr taqaazey by Rizwanul-Qasmi p:197)
3. Hazrat Abu-Bakr, by exercising Qiyas, passed the ruling and fixed for grandfather the same share which is for father in his absence.
Hazrat Abu-Bakr,by exercising Qiyas, passed the same ruling of Qitaal (Fighting) fixed by texts in matter against those who refused to pay Zakat after Prophet's death.
Proof of Qiyas by logic and reason Contents of texts are limited while happenings and new cases are limitless. On the other side, it is a fact that Islam is for all people and for all the ages and has the capacity to give solutions and guidance in all the cases happening till the end of this world. To make this practical, high-ranking Ulama who have deep knowledge of the texts must apply their minds and derive solution to newly-born problems by finding out parallel reason prescribed in the texts. And, it is what we call Qiyas or reasoning. Logically, Qiyas is a crying need of new cases otherwise the Qur'an and Hadith will be declared to be handicapped to guide in new cases.
Inshort, all these above-mentioned sources are recognized and approved. It is obligatory to accept whatever is proved by all these four sources. and, therefore, Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jama'ah accept all these four sources unanimously. To refuse any of these four is a grave mistake and deviation from right path.. Ahle-Qura'n accept the Qur'an only and refuse the remaining three----- Ahadith, Ijma and Qiyas. Consequently, they do not accept five-time prayers and all the rulings proved by the rest three sources. Today's Ahl-e-Hadees accept only the Qur'an and Hadith and refuse the last two---Ijma and Qiyas. And, as a result, they refuse all the rulings proved by these two.
1. Introduction of Tasawwuf
2. Need of Tasawwuf
3. Terminology of Tasawwuf
4. Tasawwuf in the Qur'an
5. Tasawwuf in Hadith
6. Tasawwuf in Ijma
7. Tasawwuf in the eyes of Allama Ibn Taimiyah
8. and Allama Ibn Qayyim
9. True and False Tasawwuf and Sufis
10. Bay't
11. Ashghaal & Awraad
12. Conclusion
The Qur'an, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim , Tirmizi, Abu-Daud, Ibn Majah, Nasa'ee
Fathul Baari by Allama Ibn Hajar, Bulugh Al-Maram English version by: Allama bn Hajar, Jilaul-Ainain by Allama Ibn Qayyim Madarijus-Salikeen by Allama Ibn Qayyim, Ilaus-Sunan by Allama Zafar Ahmad Thanvi, KitabusSulook, Imdadul Fatawa by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Shari'at wa Tariqat mein Farq, Fatawa Mahmoodiah by Mufti Mahmudul Hasan, Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom published in April.May and June 1993, Shari'at wa Tariqat by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Tazkiyah wa Ihsaan ya Tasawwuf wa Sulook by Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi
Introduction of Tasawwuf: Tasawwuf, Tazkiah, Ihsan-o-Sulook, and Tariqah are different names for the same concept. The concept of Tasawwuf is Takhliah an Ar-razail (purification of the heart from lowly bestial attributes of lust) and Tahliyah bil Fadhail (adornment of the heart with the lofty attributes). The people expert in this science are called sufis, Murabbis, Mashaekh, Buzurg etc in our Indian sun-continant.
While introducing Tasawwuf, Maulana Maseehullah Khan sb. says, ''The department of Shari'ah relating to A''male batini(esoteric acts or states of the heart) is called Tasawwuf and Suluk; and, the department of the Shari'ah relating to a''male zahiri (exoteric acts or physical acts) is called Fiqh. The subject matter dealt with by Tasawwuf is Tahzeebe Akhlaq or the adornment of character while the motive of this branch of the Shari'ah is the attainment of divine pleasure. The method of acquisition of this divine pleasure is total obedience to the commands of the Shari'ah. Tsawwuf in fact is the ruh (soul) and state of perfection of the Deen. Its function is to purify the batin (the heart) of man from the lowly bestial attributes of lust, clamaties of the tongue, anger, malice, jealousy, love of the world, love for fame, niggardliness, greed,ˇ­ˇ­.. At the same time it (Tasawwuf) aims at the adornment of the heart with the lofty attributes of repentance, perseverance, gratefulness, fear of Allah, hope, abstention, tauheed, love, sincerity, meditation, ˇ­ˇ­..Tasawwuf or Tareeqat is therefore not at all negatory of the Deen and Shari'ah.'' (Shariat and Tasawwuf by Hazrat Maulana Maseehullah Khan English version p:11)
Need of Tasawwuf: Now when it is clear that Tasawwuf is not contrary to the Deen, but is in fact a branch of the Shari'ah, its need is evident. Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi states in the introduction of Haqeeqatut Tareeqat:
''After rectification of beliefs and external acts it is Fardh(compulsory) upon every Muslim to rectify his esoteric acts. Numerous Qur'anic ayat and innumerable ahadith narrations explicitly indicate the fardhiat (compulsion) of this. However , most people of superficial understanding are neglectful of these because of their subversive to lowly desires. Who is not aware that the Qur'an and the Ahadith condemn the opposites of theses noble qualities, viz., hubbe dunya, hirs, takabbur, riya, shahwat, ghadab, hasad, etc., and has warned against them. what doubt is there in the fact that the noble qualities have been commanded and the bestial traits have been prohibited? This is the actual meaning of reforming the esoteric acts. this is the primary purpose of Tareeqat. It being Fardh is undoubtedly an established fact.'' (Shariat and Tasawwuf by Hazrat Maulana Maseehullah Khan English version p:11)
In brief, Tasawwuf is not contrary to Shari'ah and Islam but a branch of Shari'ah which deals with purification of heart from wrong habits and attributes such as love of world, Takabbur( envoy) malice, anger, jealousy etc and with adornment of heart with good habits and attributes such as repentance, perseverance, gratefulness, fear of Allah, hope, abstention, tauheed, love, sincerity etc. The need of purification of heart from these spiritual diseases and its adornment with good attributes has been stressed in hundreds of Qur'anic verses and Ahadith. Despite this fact, can it be called contrary to Shari'ah, baseless or useless???
Terminology of Tasawwuf: Tasawwuf, Tazkiah, Ihsan-o-Sulook, and Tariqah, are different names for the same branch of learning. In the Qur'an it has been called as Tazkiah; in Hadith as Ihsan; in the term of Ulama and Sufis of latter period it was named as Tasawwuf, Ihsan-o-Sulook and Tareeqat wa Marifat- Elahi etc.
Commenting on the term, Maulana Maseehullah Khan sb. says,''the fountain of all Islamic teaching is the Qur'an and Sunnah. The inception of this teaching was in the Majlis (gathering) of Nabi (swas). It was the initial stage of Islam which was present in its headquarters. It had a confined number of adherents, hence all branches of Islamic instruction- Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh and Tasawwuf - were imparted at one venue, the Madrasah of Nabi (swas). Separate departments did not exist. However, in this Madrasah of Nabi (swas) there was permanent group of lovers of Allah and devotees of Rasulullah (swas) who were at all times engaged in the purification of the nafs, and reformation of the batin by means of practical education. This group is called Ashab-e-Suffah. Later when Islam acquired an universal status, the Ulama of the Deen formulated the teachings of Islam into separate departments. Those who rendered service to the knowledge of Hadith are called Muhaddithin; those who undertook the responsibility of Tafseer are called the Mufassireen; those who specialized in Fiqh are called Fuqaha while those who took custody of the department of Islah al-Batin (purification of the nafs) became known as the Masha-ikh Sufiya.'' (Shariat and Tasawwuf by Hazrat Maulana Maseehullah Khan English version p:15)
Some people oppose Tasawwuf and declare it Bid'ah (innovation) arguing that this name is not found in the Qur'an, Hadith, and in Sahabas'' period but they forget the same case with many important branches of Islamic learnings. Like Tasawwuf, terminologies of many branches of Islamic learnings and their experts are not found in the Qur'an, Hadith, and in Sahabas'' period such as Ilm-e-Tafseer and Mufassir, Ilm-e-Hadis and Muhaddis, Ilm-e-Fiqh and Faqeeh, Ilmul-Ansaab, Ilm-asmaair-Rijaal, Ilmul-usool, Ilmul-Kalaam etc. In fact, the contents and roots of all the above-mentioned terminologies are found in the Qur'an, Hadith and in Sahabas'' period and therefore can not be called Bid'ah and un-Islamic. Likewise the objective and contents of the title Tasawwuf can not be called Bid'ah because they have been ordered in the Qur'an and Hadith at several places. (extract from Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom April 1993 p:13)
Analysis of the word Tasawwuf: There are different views about this word. Some say it is derived from the word Suf (wool) and Sufis were named after this word because they used to wear very simple dress made of wool out of their hatred of world. Some other think this is derived from the word Safw (cleaning) and Tasawwuf was given this name because it deals with cleaning heart from bad attributes while some other say that it is derived from Suffa-e-Al-Nabi (the terrace where a group of poor companions were devoted to learn from Prophet or the disciples of Prophet).
Tasawwuf in the Qur'an It has been stated earlier that Tasawwuf is the act of purification of heart from lowly bestial attributes and adornment of heart with lofty attributes. The Holy Qur'an is full of commands to purify one'' soul from lowly bestial attributes and to adorn oneself with lofty attributes. Only few verses are given below in this regard as examples.
Allah says '' Surely blissful is he who has cleansed his soul.'' (ch:91 v:9)
''Thus We have sent forth to you a messenger from amongst you, who recites to you Our revelations and purifies you and teaches you the Book and Wisdom, and teaches you what you were not wont to know'' (ch:2 v:151)
Note: according to these verses the Prophet (saws) was assigned four tasks by Allah (1) proclamation of Allah's book (2) purification of people (3) teaching of the Book and Wisdom. (4) Tazkiah or purification is very necessary for every Muslim and this is what is dealt with in Tasawwuf.
''Gardens everlasting with running streams, abiding therein; that is the reward for him who has purified himself.'' (ch:20 v:76)
''And as for him who dreaded standing before his Lord, and restrained his soul from desires, verily the Garden shall be his resort.'' (ch:79 v:40-41)
In these verses and many other purification of soul, restraining of soul, Taqwa, Khushu'', Sabr etc have been stressed and been given very importance. The objective and aim in Tasawwuf is nothing but to achieve these attributes.
Tasawwuf in Hadith: Like Qur'anic verses, hundreds of Ahadith lay stress on the need of the content of Tasawwuf i.e. purification of heart from lowly bestial attributes and adornment of heart with lofty attributes. Only few Ahadith are given below which deal with the acts of heart that Tasawwuf deals with.
1. In the famous long Hadith reported in Bukhari and Muslim after asking the Prophet about Islam and Iman, Hazrat Jibraeel asked about Ihsan. The Prophet answered'' it is that you worship Allah as if you see Him and if you do not see Him, he certainly sees you.'' (Al-Hadis v:1 p:95)
Note: This famous Hadith shows that worship should be done with the feeling that we are seeing Allah or at least Allah is seeing us. This feeling of Allah's presence (istihzaar) is tried to be developed in Tasawwuf. However, this Hadith can be called the central Hadith which supports Tasawwuf. Allama Ibn Hajar in his famous commentary on Bukhari- ''Fathul Bari'' says while explaining this Hadith:
'' This portion of the Haidith is one of the major principles of Islam, one of the important rules for Muslims, trust of Siddiqeen (very pious people), target of Salikeen (those who adopted Sufis' path), treasure of Arifeen (those who got higher degree of Allah's love), practice of the pious. ˇ­ˇ­ˇ­.. this principle was held tightly by Qazi Eyaaz (a great and famous Sufi) etc. (Fathul Baari, Kitabul-Iman, Hadith No:50 v:1 p:146)
2. Narrated Abu Hurairah: Allah's messenger said, ''Look at those who are lower than you (economically) but don''t look at those who are higher than you, lest you belittle the favours Allah conferred upon you.'' [Agreed upon]. (Bulugh Al-Maram English version Hadith No:1237 p:509)
3. Narrated Abu Hurairah: Allah's messenger said, ''People will not sit in an assembly in which they remember Allah without the angles surrounding them, mercy covering them, and Allah mentioning them among those who are with Him.'' (Muslim reported it) (Bulugh Al-Maram English version Hadith No:1334 p:537)
4. Narrated An-Nawas bin Sam'an: I asked Allah's Messenger about righteousness and sin and he replied, ''Righteousness is good character and sin is that which revolves in your heart, and you hate people to notice.'' (Muslim reported it) (Bulugh Al-Maram English version Hadith No:1238 p:509)
Note: [2] ''The sins are of two kinds. The first are the ones about which there are clear prohibitions in Shari'a. It is an obligation upon all to avoid them. Others ones are those whose prohibition is not found apparently but their commission is reproached and condemned by the human nature and thus one feels remorseful. Therefore it is better to avoid them.'' (ibid.)
5. Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's messenger said, ''Avoid envoy, for envoy devours the good deeds just as fire devours firewood.''[Abu Da'ud reported it] (Bulugh Al-Maram English version Hadith No:1277 p:522)
Tasawwuf in Ijma: Allama Ibn Qayyim quotes Ijma from Shyookh Aarefeen (high ranking pious and sufi people) that Tasawwuf is not contrary to the Qur'an and Hadith. He, as a reference, quoted statements of the following sufis:
Junaid Baghdadi, Abu Hafs, Abu Sulaiman Darani, Sahal bin Abdullah Tastary, Abu Yazeed Bustami, Shaikh Ahmad bin Abil Hawari, Abu Usman Nishapuri, Abul Haan Noori, Muhammad bin Fazl, Umar bin Usman Makki, Abu Saeed Kharaz, Ibn Ata Askandary, Abu Ishaq Rati, Yaqoob Taharjori, Abul Qasim Nasrabadi, Abu Bakr Tamani, Abu Umar bin Najeed, Abu Hamzah Baghdadi. Then he says that those are different from them are, in fact, thieves and agents of Iblees. (Madarijus-Salikeen v:2 p:237 Ref: Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom April 1993)
Tasawwuf in the eyes of Allama Ibn Taimiyah and Allama Ibn Qayyim: It is generally thought that Allama Ibn Taimiah and his disciple Allama Ibn Qayyim are against Tasawwuf while the fact is opposite. We are quoting views of these two in this regard from their own books:
Ibn Taimiah writs in his book, Jilaul-ainain about leading Sufis, Hasan Basari, Ibrahim bin Adham, Fuzail bin Eyaz, Maroof Karkhi, Bishr Hafi, Shaqiq balkhi, Junaid Baghdadi, Sahal Tastari, Abu-Talib Makki, Abdul-Qadir Jeelani that they are Mashaekh of Islam, Imams of Hidayat (guidance), Allah has given true tongue to Ummah in their regard'' (Jilaul-Ainain p:106)
He writes in his book ''As-simaa war Raqs'' about Ahmad bin Jawari, sir Siqti Abusulaiman Darani that they were among great Shoyookh Saliheen.
He writes in his book ''Al-Furqan baina Aulia -ar-Rahman wa Auliaish-Shaitan that all of them are Mashaekh of the Quran and Sunnah. (Al-Furqan baina Aulia -ar-Rahman wa Auliaish-Shaitan p:44)
Allama Ibn Qayyim has written a commentary in three volumes on Manazil-e-Saireen by Allama Harawi. In the first volume he wrote in favour of Tasawwuf and presented many learned arguments and proofs in its support. In the second volume, he has mentioned simple acts of Tasawwuf. In the third volume, he has, according to his knowledge, passed criticism on Tasawwuf and Sufis. (Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom April 1993 p:105 to 110)
''Allama Ibn Taimiah has classified a special state of Tasawwuf called Fina (spiritual state in which, due to excess thinking and meditation about Allah, to a sufi nothing except Allah is existent) into three kinds. He says that the first kind of Fina is related to Prophets and Awlia-e-Kamileen; the second one is related to Qasideen, Awlia-e-saliheen. Explaining it, he says that the second kind is Fina from everything except Allah and this state happens to the most of Salikeen (people who walk on the path of Tasawwuf). This state comes when one is greatly inclined to love of Allah, His worship and remembrance. Wholly engagement in beloved hides the presence and existence of others. This state of Fina reaches such an extent that even all the creatures become invisible to him and only Allah remains visible. Since this Fina is weaker than the first one, this Fina does not occur to prophets and great Awliya (Allah's friends) such as Hazrat Siddiq Akbar, Hazrat Umar and other early Awliya. This Fina started from the period of Tabe'een. This happened to some of Mashaekh Sufis like Abu-Yazeed Bustami, Abul-Hasan Noori and Abu-Bakr Shibli etc. and did not happen to Abu-Sulaiman Darani, Maaroof Karkhi, Fuzail bin Eyaaz and Junaid Baghdadi.'' (al-Uboodiah p:98 Ref: Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom April 1993 p:109,110)
Both Allama Ibn Taimiah and Allama Ibn Qayyim, in support of Tasawwuf, went to such an extent that they consider a Salik (treading the path of Tasawwuf) excusable if he overpowered by his spiritual unconsciousness utters ''Subhani maa aazama Sha'ni'' or ''maa fi jubbati il-lallah''(Glory be to me. How great I am! there is none but Allah in my gown) (Madarijus-Salikeen v:1 p:84 Ref: Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom April1993 p:110)
Madaarijus-Salikeen is an exhaustive book in three volumes on Tasawwuf authored by Allama ibn Qayyim published under special care of Allama Sayyid Rasheed Raza Al-Misri, which title carries this statement'' this is a book on Tasawwuf and realities of Ma'arif-e-Ilahiyah according to Allah's book, Sunnah and Salaf Saleh (great pious Muslims of early times)''. Shaikh Hamid Al-Fiqi, a staunch follower and fond of Allama Ibn Taimiah and Allama Ibn Qayyim expressed his worries on his abundant quotations and statements from Mashaekh Sufis. He frowns upon Allama Ibn Taimiah on his praise of sufis. (Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom April 1993 p:110,111)
Allama Ibn Rajab Hambali says that Ibn Qayyim possessed a high position in Tasawwuf and had a great deal of Azwaaq and Mawaajeed (plural of Zawq and Wajd) (Al-Ihsaan, special issue of Mahnama Darululoom April 1993 p:110,111)
True and False Tasawwuf and Sufis: By the passing of time, as in every group there exist true and false people. In every field there are those who are genuine and those who are imposters. Similar is the case with Tasawwuf. The person who does not act upon the Shari'ah and does not follow the Sunnah is nothing but imposter. It is a bitter fact that two groups appeared everywhere in about every department of Shari'ah who digressed from the right and moderate path and adopted two extremes in order to follow their desires. Tasawwuf faced the same tragedy and was defamed because of two extreme groups. One group adopting one extreme, (they are transgressing or Ghali so-called sufis) denied the need of the Qur'an and Hadith and said that

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